LED Lighting: Factors for innovative LED technology

Factors for innovative LED technology

With the breakthrough of LED as light source, the focus shifted to the lighting on the combination of optical and electronic elements, in short, to opto electronics. Along the entire value chain of LED technology and processes are continuously improved in order to achieve the goal of offering innovative products of efficient visual comfort. Optoelectronic competence means to master all the new challenges in an excellent manner: From the thermal management of electronic components on the development, efficient optics to optimize the operating gear and digital interfaces and the development of appropriate tools to control software. LED Lighting – Optics Projection and Reflection

Conventional point light sources emit their light in a solid angle of nearly 360 °, LEDs, however directed, from the outset, in a solid angle <180 °. So that losses can be due to scattered light or emitted light version (red in the drawing) to avoid. It also follows from the greater efficiency of transmission at lenses compared to reflection from reflectors, better efficiency, which is reflected in the resulting light output from the lamp. For the practice, it comes down to how much light is incident on the target. Thus, for example, compare the illuminance of radiators the same characteristics over a given distance in lx / W: jobs, too, the principle of projection with LEDs.

Projection: Spherolit

With LED lighting tools for directed light ERCO uses for light, control Spherolit as tertiary lenses. Technically and in the distribution patterns Spherolit base both on the patented Spherolit reflectors, which have been proven with conventional light sources. They offer both an excellent quality of light has many practical advantages for designers and users. The Spherolit is based on dividing a large lens or reflector surface in individual, three-domed facets that control the light by refraction or reflection. The transmission of light through the polymer Spherolit from lower losses than with reflection. The manufacturing process takes place from the complex calculation and computer simulation, the precision tooling to production under the umbrella of ERCO.

LED Lighting – LED Optics

The quality of the optical effect influences on the total efficiency of an LED lighting in a high degree. For the generation of directed light, for example in spotlights, ERCO therefore uses a proprietary projection optics. A collimator as a secondary lens, the link between the LED lens on the board and the exchangeable lenses. The collimator directs the light of the LEDs in parallel, so that then a tertiary lens can form the desired radiation pattern. The principle of total internal reflection in the collimator contributes to the high efficiency of the optics.

Optical principle

The light steering in LED emitters is made by three elements: The primary lens with the lens directly to the LED chip, for a hemispherical light output, the secondary lens as a collimator for parallel alignment of the light rays and the tertiary lens Spherolit. The choice of tertiary lens determines the radiation and is based on the particular application.


For all radiation characteristics – except for narrow spot – the three-piece collimator is suitable for the module with three LEDs. The orientation of the light beams takes place by total reflection at the side and the central lens. Precise interconnection points facilitate the safe and efficient installation.

Collimator for narrow spot

At LED spotlights and floodlights with the radiation, narrow spot, the corresponding collimator used. Its effect is based only on the optical principle of total internal reflection, which contributes to the high efficiency of the lighting system.


Due to the shape and material of the collimator for narrow spot, that works virtually no losses on the principle of total internal reflection and thus offers optimum efficiency in the light direction. After focusing the light beams through the collimator, the tertiary lens determined with the Spherolit the emission: from narrow beams of light across wide beams to asymmetric light intensity distributions for vertical illuminance.


ERCO’s extensive experience with optical simulations made it possible to solve new challenges such as the development of highly efficient lens systems innovation. Short distances for optimum quality: Photometric Laboratory, tooling and production of optical systems are located on the same site at ERCO, so computer simulations, prototypes and production parts can be directly compared.

LED modules

An LED module is composed of the individual LEDs, which are soldered to a circuit board. ERCO relates the LEDs from major manufacturers worldwide, specified for luminous flux, luminous efficacy, colour rendering, colour temperature or light colour and uniform properties for series production. Selecting appropriate LEDs, and their arrangement on the circuit board is carried out in dependence on the respective illumination object. To optimize the overall system ERCO develops the specific boards themselves. With appropriate layout for the particular radiation characteristics, precise connection points for the secondary optics, whilst ensuring optimum heat dissipation of the LED chips on the PCB to the housing

Board for projection optics

The yellow surface layer of gleaming white LEDs, the phosphor to luminescence. Optimized distances LED thermal management support on the board.

Board for reflective optics

In optical systems that direct the light through a light mixer, improves a high reflectance of the plate efficiency. Therefore, receive these boards a white paint. Optical system according to an adjustment of the LED array on the PCB.

Neutral white and warm white

ERCO has LED lights with the light colour neutral white or warm white. Designers can thus adjust the light colour the material colours and room atmosphere or working with hot and cold contrasts.

The production process of LEDs leads to a certain variation in colour location of LEDs, which are sorted in so-called binning. Uniform light quality requires the strict selection of components from defined binning.

Warm white LEDs

The relative spectral distribution of the warm white LED with luminescence agrees well with the relative sensitivity of Hellempfind-pin of the human eye. This results in a high luminous efficacy and good colour reproduction.


The RGB LEDs are on for mixing highly saturated coloured light. White light from RGB LEDs does not a satisfactory colour reproduction quality, and is therefore less suitable for colour-critical lighting applications.


The combination of RGB LEDs with warm white LEDs combine the advantages of both systems: RGBW lights generate one-hand variable shades of white along the Planckian locus with excellent colour reproduction, on the other hand, however, until well colour light of pastel colours in the high area.

LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into by electroluminescence light. Robustness, durability and high light output with further growth potential are among the outstanding characteristics of the LEDs. White LED light is free of ultraviolet and infrared components and therefore advantageous for conservation. Daylight white LEDs provide greater efficiency, warm white LEDs have a better colour reproduction quality.

LEDs are dimmable and switching stability, they are therefore ideal for light control and additive colour mixing. Unlike other light sources, RGB LEDs, no transmission losses through colour filters. To the light output of the LEDs to the full temperature-sensitive, good thermal management is essential.